» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - jade

jade (adj.)

1.of something having the color of jade; especially varying from bluish green to yellowish green

jade (n.)

1.an old or over-worked horse

2.a light green color varying from bluish green to yellowish green

3.a woman adulterer

4.a semiprecious gemstone that takes a high polish; is usually green but sometimes whitish; consists of jadeite or nephrite

jade (v.)

1.exhaust or get tired through overuse or great strain or stress"We wore ourselves out on this hike"

2.lose interest or become bored with something or somebody"I'm so tired of your mother and her complaints about my food"

   Advertizing ▼

Merriam Webster

JadeJade, n. [OE. jade; cf. Prov. E. yaud, Scot. yade, yad, yaud, Icel. jalda a mare.]


1. A mean or tired horse; a worthless nag. Chaucer.

Tired as a jade in overloaden cart. Sir P. Sidney.

2. A disreputable or vicious woman; a wench; a quean; also, sometimes, a worthless man. Shak.

She shines the first of battered jades. Swift.

3. A young woman; -- generally so called in irony or slight contempt.

A souple jade she was, and strang. Burns.

JadeJade, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Jading.]


1. To treat like a jade; to spurn. [Obs.] Shak.

2. To make ridiculous and contemptible. [Obs.]

I do now fool myself, to let imagination jade me. Shak.

3. To exhaust by overdriving or long-continued labor of any kind; to tire, make dull, or wear out by severe or tedious tasks; to harass.

The mind, once jaded by an attempt above its power, . . . checks at any vigorous undertaking ever after. Locke.

Syn. -- To fatigue; tire; weary; harass. -- To Jade, Fatigue, Tire, Weary. Fatigue is the generic term; tire denotes fatigue which wastes the strength; weary implies that a person is worn out by exertion; jade refers to the weariness created by a long and steady repetition of the same act or effort. A little exertion will tire a child or a weak person; a severe or protracted task wearies equally the body and the mind; the most powerful horse becomes jaded on a long journey by a continual straining of the same muscles. Wearied with labor of body or mind; tired of work, tired out by importunities; jaded by incessant attention to business.

JadeJade, v. i. To become weary; to lose spirit.

They . . . fail, and jade, and tire in the prosecution. South.

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - jade

see also - jade

phrases

-1983 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1984 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1985 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1986 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1987 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1988 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1989 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1990 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1991 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1992 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1993 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1994 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1995 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1996 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1997 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1998 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 1999 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 2000 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 2001 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 2002 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 2003 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 2004 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 2005 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 2006 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 2007 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 2008 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • 2009 Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • Anshan Jade Buddha • Ashley Jade • Bi (jade) • Biro Jade • Black Jade River • Charlie Jade • Chinese jade • Clan Jade Falcon • Claude Jade • Cong (jade) • Costa Rican jade tradition • Crush (Baek Ji Young and Jade Villalon song) • Crystal Jade Culinary Concept Holdings • Crystal Jade Kitchen • Cutting Jade • Don't Walk Away (Jade song) • Emily-Jade O'Keefe • Fluoro-Jade stain • Honda CB250 Jade • Isabella-Jade Wiliams • JADE (particle detector) • JADE (programming language) • Jade (American band) • Jade (Bratz) • Jade (Chaos Comics) • Jade (Corey Hart album) • Jade (Flowing Tears album) • Jade (Jimsaku album) • Jade (UK band) • Jade (band) • Jade (comics) • Jade (disambiguation) • Jade (film) • Jade (given name) • Jade (music group) • Jade (name) • Jade (river) • Jade (singer) • Jade Anderson • Jade Arcade • Jade Bailey • Jade Barbosa • Jade Belt Bridge • Jade Boho • Jade Books in Heaven • Jade Buddha • Jade Buddha Temple • Jade C. Bell • Jade Calvert • Jade Capstick • Jade Cargo International • Jade Chu • Jade Chung • Jade City, British Columbia • Jade Clubtail • Jade Cocoon 2 • Jade Dernbach • Jade Dragon • Jade Dragon Snow Mountain • Jade Dynasty • Jade Dynasty (video game) • Jade Edmistone • Jade Emperor • Jade Empire • Jade Esteban Estrada • Jade Ewen • Jade Filefish • Jade Flowerpots and Bound Feet • Jade Gatt • Jade Goddess of Mercy • Jade Goody • Jade Hills • Jade Hsu • Jade Johnson • Jade Jones • Jade Kindar-Martin • Jade Leonard • Jade Leung • Jade Lopez • Jade MacRae • Jade MacRae (album) • Jade McNelis • Jade McSorley • Jade North • Jade Nova • Jade Parfitt • Jade Peak Pagoda • Jade Point • Jade Puget • Jade Radburn • Jade Rawlings • Jade Raymond • Jade Record • Jade Ribbon Campaign • Jade Road • Jade Seah • Jade Sharif • Jade Sheedy • Jade Snow Wong • Jade Solid Gold • Jade Solid Gold (album) • Jade Solid Gold Best Ten Music Awards Presentation • Jade Starbiz • Jade Starling • Jade String Quartet • Jade Sutherland • Jade Taylor • Jade Thomas • Jade Topia • Jade Treaty • Jade Tree • Jade Tree (record label) • Jade Trini • Jade Trini Goring • Jade Valerie Discography • Jade Vilallon discography • Jade Villalon • Jade Warrior • Jade Warrior (album) • Jade Warrior (band) • Jade Warrior (film) • Jade Water Village • Jade Yorker • Jade at Brickell Bay • Jade engine • Jade estuary • Jade of Sweetbox • Jade oil • Jade plant • Jade records • Jade to the Max • Jade use in Mesoamerica • Jade vine • Jade's Salon • Jade, Germany • Jade-Blue Eclipse • Jade-Lianna Peters • Kendra Jade • Kendra Jade Rossi • Korean jade • Layla Jade • List of Charlie Jade episodes • Mara Jade • Minister Jade • Minister jade • Ms. Jade • Museo del Jade Marco Fidel Tristán Castro • NOW (Jade Warrior album) • Norwegian Jade • Out of the Box (Jade Valerie album) • Realm of the Jade Goddess • Red Jade • Released (Jade Warrior album) • Samantha Jade • Scenes from a Jade Terrace • Shades of Jade (album) • Simmone Jade Mackinnon • Simmone Jade-Mackinnon • So Hot Right Now (Jade MacRae song) • Superstar (Jade MacRae song) • TVB Jade • TVB Jade on-air identity • The Curse of the Jade Scorpion • The Heart of Jade • The Jade Box • The Jade Hare • The Jade Peony • The Jade Trilogy • The Spanish Jade • Throne of Jade • Tom Lantos Block Burmese JADE (Junta's Anti-Democratic Efforts) Act of 2008 • Ulmus parvifolia 'Jade Empress'

analogical dictionary








Wikipedia

Jade

                   
  A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade
  Unworked jade
  Jade on display in Jade City, British Columbia, Canada

Jade is an ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different metamorphic rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals:

  • Nephrite consists of a microcrystaline interlocking fibrous matrix of the calcium, magnesium-iron rich amphibole mineral series tremolite (calcium-magnesium)-ferroactinolite (calcium-magnesium-iron). The middle member of this series with an intermediate composition is called actinolite (the silky fibrous mineral form is one form of asbestos). The higher the iron content the greener the colour.
  • Jadeite is a sodium- and aluminium-rich pyroxene. The gem form of the mineral is a microcrystaline interlocking crystal matrix.

Contents

  Etymology

The English word jade (alternative spellings "jaid", "jadeite") is derived (via French l'ejade and Latin ilia[1]) from the Spanish term piedra de ijada (first recorded in 1565) or "loin stone", from its reputed efficacy in curing ailments of the loins and kidneys. Nephrite is derived from lapis nephriticus, the Latin version of the Spanish piedra de ijada.[2] In some countries, jade is more commonly known as 'greenstone'.

  Overview

  Nephrite and jadeite

Nephrite and jadeite were used from prehistoric periods for hardstone carving. Jadeite has about the same hardness as quartz, while nephrite is somewhat softer. It was not until the 19th century that a French mineralogist determined that "jade" was in fact two different materials[citation needed].

Among the earliest known jade artifacts excavated from prehistoric sites are simple ornaments with bead, button, and tubular shapes.[3] Additionally, jade was used for adze heads, knives, and other weapons, which can be delicately shaped. As metal-working technologies became available, the beauty of jade made it valuable for ornaments and decorative objects. Jadeite measures between 6.0 and 7.0 Mohs hardness, and Nephrite between 6.0 and 6.5, so it can be worked with quartz or garnet sand, and polished with bamboo or even ground jade.[citation needed]

  Unusual varieties

Nephrite can be found in a creamy white form (known in China as "mutton fat" jade) as well as in a variety of green colours, whereas jadeite shows more colour variations, including blue, lavender-mauve, pink, and emerald-green colours. Of the two, jadeite is rarer, documented in fewer than 12 places worldwide. Translucent emerald-green jadeite is the most prized variety, both historically and today. As "quetzal" jade, bright green jadeite from Guatemala was treasured by Mesoamerican cultures, and as "kingfisher" jade, vivid green rocks from Burma became the preferred stone of post-1800 Chinese imperial scholars and rulers. Burma (Myanmar) and Guatemala are the principal sources of modern gem jadeite. In the area of Mogaung in the Myitkyina District of Upper Burma (Myanmar), jadeite formed a layer in the dark-green serpentine, and has been quarried and exported for well over a hundred years.[4] Canada provides the major share of modern lapidary nephrite. Nephrite jade was used mostly in pre-1800 China as well as in New Zealand, the Pacific Coast and Atlantic Coasts of North America, Neolithic Europe, and Southeast Asia. In addition to Mesoamerica, jadeite was used by Neolithic Japanese and European cultures.

  History

  Prehistoric and historic China

  Jade dragon, Western Han Dynasty (202 BC – 9 AD)
  Large "mutton fat" nephrite jade displayed in Hotan Cultural Museum lobby.

During Neolithic times, the key known sources of nephrite jade in China for utilitarian and ceremonial jade items were the now depleted deposits in the Ningshao area in the Yangtze River Delta (Liangzhu culture 3400–2250 BC) and in an area of the Liaoning province and Inner Mongolia (Hongshan culture 4700–2200 BC).[5] Dushan Jade was being mined as early as 6000 BC. In the Yin Ruins of the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC to 1050 BC) in Anyang, Dushan Jade ornaments were unearthed in the tomb of the Shang kings. Jade was used to create many utilitarian and ceremonial objects, from indoor decorative items to jade burial suits. Jade was considered the "imperial gem". From the earliest Chinese dynasties to the present, the jade deposits most in use were not only those of Khotan in the Western Chinese province of Xinjiang but other parts of China as well, such as Lantian, Shaanxi. There, white and greenish nephrite jade is found in small quarries and as pebbles and boulders in the rivers flowing from the Kuen-Lun mountain range eastward into the Takla-Makan desert area. The river jade collection is concentrated in the Yarkand, the White Jades (Yurungkash) and Black Jade (Karakash) Rivers. From the Kingdom of Khotan, on the southern leg of the Silk Road, yearly tribute payments consisting of the most precious white jade were made to the Chinese Imperial court and there worked into objets d'art by skilled artisans as jade had a status-value exceeding that of gold or silver. Jade became a favourite material for the crafting of Chinese scholars' objects, such as rests for calligraphy brushes, as well as the mouthpieces of some opium pipes, due to the belief that breathing through jade would bestow longevity upon smokers who used such a pipe.[6]

Jadeite, with its bright emerald-green, pink, lavender, orange and brown colours was imported from Burma to China only after about 1800. The vivid green variety became known as Feicui (翡翠) or Kingfisher (feathers) Jade. It quickly became almost as popular as nephrite and a favorite of Qing Dynasty's nouveau riche, while scholars still had strong attachment to nephrite (white jade, or Khotan), which they deem as the symbol of a nobleman.

In the history of the art of the Chinese empire, jade has had a special significance, comparable with that of gold and diamonds in the West.[7] Jade was used for the finest objects and cult figures, and for grave furnishings for high-ranking members of the imperial family.[7] Due to that significance and the rising middle class in China, today the finest jade when found in nuggets of “mutton fat” jade — so-named for its marbled white consistency — can fetch $3,000 an ounce, a tenfold increase from a decade ago.[8]

  Prehistoric and historic India

The Jainist temple of Kolanpak in the Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India is home to a 5-foot (1.5 m) high sculpture of Mahavira that is carved entirely out of jade. It is the largest sculpture made from a single jade rock in the world. India is also noted for its craftsman tradition of using large amounts of green serpentine or false jade obtained primarily from Afghanistan in order to fashion jewellery and ornamental items such as sword hilts and dagger handles.[4]

  Prehistoric and early historic Korea

  Korean National Treasure No. 191, a gold crown with comma-shaped jades, was excavated from the Heavenly Horse Tomb of Silla and dates to the 5th century AD.
  Jadeite Pectoral from the Mayan Classic period (195 mm/7.7 in high)

The use of jade and other greenstone was a long-term tradition in Korea (c. 850 BC – AD 668). Jade is found in small numbers of pit-houses and burials. The craft production of small comma-shaped and tubular "jades" using materials such as jade, microcline, jasper, etc., in southern Korea originates from the Middle Mumun Pottery Period (c. 850–550 BC).[9] Comma-shaped jades are found on some of the gold crowns of Silla royalty (c. AD 300/400–668) and sumptuous elite burials of the Korean Three Kingdoms. After the state of Silla united the Korean Peninsula in AD 668, the widespread popularisation of death rituals related to Buddhism resulted in the decline of the use of jade in burials as prestige mortuary goods.

  Māori

Nephrite jade in New Zealand is known as pounamu in the Māori language (often called "greenstone" in New Zealand English), and plays an important role in Māori culture. It is considered a taonga, or treasure, and therefore protected under the Treaty of Waitangi, and the exploitation of it is restricted and closely monitored. It is found only in the South Island of New Zealand, known as Te Wai Pounamu in Māori—"The [land of] Greenstone Water", or Te Wahi Pounamu—"The Place of Greenstone".

Tools, weapons and ornaments were made of it; in particular adzes, the 'mere' (short club), and the Hei-tiki (neck pendant). These were believed to have their own mana, handed down as valuable heirlooms, and often given as gifts to seal important agreements. Nephrite jewellery of Maori design is widely popular with locals and tourists, although some of the jade used for these is now imported from British Columbia and elsewhere.[10]

  Mesoamerica

Jade was a rare and valued material in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. The only source from which the various indigenous cultures, such as the Olmec and Maya, could obtain jade was located in the Motagua River valley in Guatemala. Jade was largely an elite good, and was usually carved in various ways, whether serving as a medium upon which hieroglyphs were inscribed, or shaped into symbolic figurines. Generally, the material was highly symbolic, and it was often employed in the performance of ideological practices and rituals.

  Enhancement

Jade may be enhanced (sometimes called "stabilized"). Note that some merchants will refer to these as Grades, but it is important to bear in mind that degree of enhancement is different from colour and texture quality. In other words, Type A jadeite is not enhanced but can have poor colour and texture. There are three main methods of enhancement, sometimes referred to as the ABC Treatment System:[11]

  • Type A jadeite has not been treated in any way except surface waxing.
  • Type B treatment involves exposing a promising but stained piece of jadeite to chemical bleaches and/or acids and impregnating it with a clear polymer resin. This results in a significant improvement of transparency and colour of the material. Currently, infrared spectroscopy is the most accurate test for the detection of polymer in jadeite.
  • Type C jade has been artificially stained or dyed. The effects are somewhat uncontrollable and may result in a dull brown. In any case, translucency is usually lost.
  • B+C jade is a combination of B and C: it has been both artificially dyed AND impregnated.
  • Type D jade refers to a composite stone such as a doublet comprising a jade top with a plastic backing.

  See also

  References

  1. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=jade. Retrieved 2011-03-07. 
  2. ^ Easby, Elizabeth Kennedy. Pre-Colombian Jade from Costa Rica. (1968). André Emmerich Inc., New York
  3. ^ Liu, Li. The Products of Minds as Well as Hands: Production of Prestige Goods in Neolithic and Early State Periods of China. Asian Perspectives 42(1):1-40, 2003, pg 2.
  4. ^ a b Hunter, Sir William Wilson and Burn, Sir Richard, The Imperial Gazeteer of India, Vol. 3, Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, Henry Frowde Publishers (1907), p. 242
  5. ^ Liu, Li 2003:3-15
  6. ^ Martin, Steven. The Art of Opium Antiques. Silkworm Books, Chiang Mai, 2007
  7. ^ a b Jade. Gemstone.org
  8. ^ NYtimes.com
  9. ^ Bale, Martin T. and Ko, Min-jung. Craft Production and Social Change in Mumun Pottery Period Korea. Asian Perspectives 45(2):159-187, 2006.
  10. ^ Salt, Donn, 1992, Stone, Bone and Jade - 24 New Zealand Artists, David Bateman Ltd, Auckland.
  11. ^ Tay Thye Sun, The Changing Face of Jade, Swiss Gemmological Inst., SSEF Alumni Newsletter No. 3, pp. 5 - 6

  Further reading

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of jade


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

   Advertising ▼

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

 

6604 online visitors

computed in 0.094s

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼